Huawei’s Android loss: How it affects you

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Huawei’s smartphone division’s success has been tied to the popularity of Google’s Android

The restrictions being placed on Huawei’s access to the Android operating system will cast a long shadow over Tuesday’s launch of the Chinese company’s latest handsets.

The firm has invited press from across the globe to London to witness the unveiling of its Honor 20 Series smartphones.

The BBC understands the devices will still offer the full Android experience – including use of Google’s own app store.

But unless a clash with the US government is resolved, future launches are set to deliver a much more limited experience – assuming Huawei decides to run them off Android at all.

As yet it is unclear whether the restrictions Google has imposed on Huawei will be long-lasting.

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Huawei had sent out this invitation to the launch of new smartphones under its Honor sub-brand

Presumably Google does not want to break ties with what is the world’s second bestselling Android phone-maker after Samsung – the Chinese firm recently said more than half a billion consumers use its handsets.

In theory, the US’s Bureau of Industry and Security could issue a licence to let Google continue the relationship or at least parts of it, or even make a U-turn and drop its restrictions altogether.

But assuming the matter is not resolved soon, let’s try and pick our way through the consequences.

What exactly is Google doing?

The US tech firm is suspending all business activity with Huawei related to “non-public” transfers of hardware, software and technical services.

That does not mean that Huawei loses all access to Android, as the core operating system is an open source project. Any manufacturer can modify it and install it on their devices without having to get permission.

But in practice, all the major vendors rely on a lot of support from Google.

In addition, Google controls access to several add-on bits of software, including:

  • the Play app store
  • its own apps
  • the Google Assistant virtual helper
  • the Gmail email service
  • tools that allow third-party services access to certain functions

How does this affect existing Huawei handsets?

Owners of Huawei or Honor phones will not find that they suddenly cannot install new apps or get updates for Google services.

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Huawei shipped about 3.1 million handsets to the UK between April 2018 and March 2019, according to analysts IDC, making it the third most popular brand after Apple and Samsung

The reason is that their devices have already been certified under processes known as the Compatibility Test Suite (CTS) and the Vendor Test Suite (VTS).

As a consequence, Google can provide them with new versions of its products and authorise downloads from its Play marketplace, without having to directly deal with Huawei itself.

However, matters become more complex when it comes to security updates.

The way these typically work is that Google gives Android device-makers the code for its software fixes about one month before it reveals details to the public about the vulnerabilities involved.

This gives manufacturers time to check the patches do not cause problems for their own proprietary software, and then to package up a customised version of the fixes as a download.

Huawei will now only learn of the patches on the same day they are released to the Android Open Source Project (AOSP), meaning there will be a lag before it can distribute them.

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Huawei has promised to continue providing security updates for its smartphones

That could theoretically result in a situation in which a serious flaw is revealed and Huawei’s devices remain exposed for several days or weeks.

How about new handsets?

New phones will not be certified, and as a consequence will not be able to have Google Mobile Services (GMS) pre-installed.

This includes a suite of Google’s own apps including:

  • the Play stores for apps, music and other media
  • Google Photos
  • YouTube
  • Google Maps
  • Google Drive cloud storage
  • Google Duo video calls

Some of these services will still be accessible via the web, but many would find that less convenient.

The loss will not have much impact on China-based users, who are already blocked from accessing most of Google’s facilities. But elsewhere, it could be a deal-breaker for many consumers.

They would still be able to install third-party apps via alternative stores or a process known as side-loading.

But Google prevents its own apps being installed on uncertified devices.

Furthermore, losing access to GMS also means that third-party developers would not be able to tap into Google’s application programming interfaces (APIs) on new devices.

The consequences would be that their apps could lose some functions.

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Huawei would be unable to install the GMS suite of apps on its forthcoming phones

“Let’s say an app wants to send a notification to your device,” Mishaal Rahman, editor-in-chief of the news site, explained to the BBC.

“There’s a really, really good chance that it’s using Google Play Services for its push notification service. So any apps – even Twitter – could stop working with push notifications.”

Another example, he added, would be the loss of Casting, a facility that allows handsets to wirelessly stream audio and video to a TV or other equipment via a tap of an icon.

What about future releases of Android?

There has already been a lot of speculation that Huawei devices might be stuck with the current version of Android.

But Mr Rahman believes that is unlikely to be the case since the next version – Android Q – will also be open source and Google has already shared most of the source code with Huawei and other partners.

However, he added that things could be more tricky for the subsequent release – Android R – in 2020.

“What happens is that Google’s top partners – which includes companies like Huawei and Samsung – get early access to the preview code many months before the public beta release,” he explained.

“That gives them a big head-start on adapting their own software releases.

“The impact on Huawei would be that it would lose several months of development time.”

Moreover, Mr Rahman added, even if the Chinese company was willing to accept it could only offer the operating system much later than its competitors, it would also face a marketing nightmare.

“Android is actually a brand, and in order to use it your software must [be certified],” he explained.

“So, even if Huawei continues to sell devices using the open source code, it cannot legally call its devices Android.”

So what is the alternative?

Huawei told the BBC it would prefer to work with Android, but has created a new operating system as a Plan B

“We have been making plans for this possible outcome – but it hasn’t happened yet,” Jeremy Thompson, Huawei’s UK executive vice president said.

“We have a parallel programme in place to develop an alternative… which we think will delight our customers.

“In the short-term it’s not good news for Huawei, but I think we can manage that.”

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Huawei’s consumer business chief Richard Yu has also confirmed it has developed an alternative to Android

In China, that might not be too disruptive a move, thanks to the fact that device-owners spend much of their time within WeChat – a platform that allows third-party apps to run within it.

Furthermore, other developers are likely to be put under pressure to quickly release versions of their stand-alone apps for the new operating system.

But elsewhere the move could be highly problematic.

“Whatever they have cooked up is dead in the water,” claimed Mr Rahman.

“The critical part of success with a mobile OS is the number of apps available on the market.

“And besides Apple’s iOS, Android has the biggest developer platform.”

Source link raises $15M to build a plug-and-play supercomputer for autonomous systems – TechCrunch, a startup founded by some of the folks behind the once-secretive bitcoin mining operation “21E6,” has raised $15 million in a Series A round that will fund the development of a supercomputer designed for autonomous systems.  

The round was led by automotive Tier 1 supplier DENSO and its semiconductor products arm NSITEXE, which will also be one of’s customers for future electronic systems in all levels of autonomous driving solutions. Leawood VC also participated in the Series A round.

The company says it will use the injection of capital to build out its product, hire more people and business development.

PearUncork CapitalSV AngelCota Capital, and Trucks VC are seed investors in

The roots of grew from a seemingly disconnected mission to produce an agricultural robot designed to transform the way vineyards were managed. The company launched in 2016 by CEO Veerbhan Kheterpal, CTO Nigel Drego and CPO Daniel Firu — all co-founders of 21 Inc. The bitcoin startup, once known as 21E6, would later rebrand as before being acquired by Coinbase for $100 million.

Quadric’s original plan was stymied by some real-world fundamentals. The power-hungry ag robot was weighed down by batteries that became too unwieldy to move amongst vineyard rows and the processing time to turn loads environmental data into actual actions based on algorithms were too slow.

Quadric was looking for a chip designed for processing on the edge and that supported decision-making in real time — all while crunching data faster and sipping, not slurping power. That need grew into Quadric’s core product today: a supercomputer that the company says hits that sweet spot of increased computational speed and reduced power consumption.

Kheterpal noted in a recent post on Medium that Intel’s CPU’s work “very well for standard computer processing” and Nvidia’s GPU’s have “ushered in astounding new graphics processing for gaming and much more.” But he argued, that Quadric needed something neither of those companies could provide: a chip designed for processing on the edge.

The company created a single unified architecture in the supercomputer that enables high performance computing and artificial intelligence. The supercomputer, which is built around the Quadric Processor, is plug-and-play. This means people can plug in their sensor set and build their entire application to support “near-instantaneous” decision making, Quadric says. The company claims that early testing of Quadric’s system has shown up to 100 times lower latency and a 90 percent reduction in power consumption. 

Quadric designed the instruction set, chip architecture and system architecture of the chip. System-level manufacturing is done at a contract manufacturer in Santa Clara, Calif., while chip manufacturing and assembly is done in Asia.

Quadric argues this underlying technology is a prerequisite for companies developing autonomous systems that will be used in the construction, transportation, agriculture and warehousing industries. The underlying tech that supports autonomous machines used in these industries either lacks the performance or solves only a small part of the full application, according to Quadric.

The startup contends that machines with autonomous functions requires processing speed and responsiveness “on the edge” — meaning at the machine level, not in the cloud.   

Other companies, most recently Tesla, have opted to build their own chips to meet this specific need. But as Kheterpal notes, not all companies have the resources to build the tech from the ground up. 

“ Quadric is a plug and play option that eliminates the need for building heterogeneous systems with significant hardware and software integration costs — thereby taking years off of product development roadmaps,” Kheterpal wrote.

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How to block the Windows 10 May 2019 Update, version 1903, from installing

Surely you remember how the first release of Windows 10 version 1809 turned out — deleted files, panicked users, yanked upgrades that were unyanked and yanked again. Heaven knows that the release of Windows 10 version 1903 couldn’t be any worse, but there’s every reason to wait and see.

For almost everyone, the new features in version 1903, known to some as the May 2019 Update — Cortana banished, a few anemic phone extensions, newly spry response to a failed update — just aren’t worth the bother of installing and setting up an entirely new copy of Windows. (Unless you really want Candy Crush Soda Saga installed for the umpteenth time.)

If you’re convinced that Cortana should sit in a corner by itself, your opinion may vary, of course. And there are undeniable benefits under the covers. But for 90% of us, I would guess, 1903 isn’t high on the priority list. It certainly isn’t worth thrusting yourself into the unpaid beta-tester pool at the earliest opportunity, while waiting for Microsoft to iron out its problems. Thus, for most Windows 10 users, it makes a whole lot of sense to wait and update to 1903 when you’re good and ready for it — not when Microsoft decides to push it on you. (Whatever you do, don’t manually check for updates.)

Microsoft is about to unleash a new “Download and install” link in Windows 10 versions 1803 and 1809. At least in theory, if you avoid clicking “Download and install now” when the “Feature Update to Windows 10, version 1903” release appears in Windows Update, you shouldn’t have it pushed on your machine. As we went to press, the details were hazy — the only example we’ve seen doesn’t match what’s been promised — so, for now at least, you’d be well advised to take the old approach and avoid clicking “Download and install now.”

If the “Download and install now” option rolls out the way it’s been billed, and we’re able to verify that it works out in the real world, we’ll update this article.

The textbook approach (for Windows 10 Pro, Enterprise and Education)

For those of you running Windows 10 Pro, Enterprise or Education, there’s always the Microsoft Party Line. Here’s the official way to turn off Windows 10 “feature updates” (that’s the official name for a version upgrade):

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Amazon Faces Investor Pressure Over Facial Recognition

Facial recognition software is coming under increasing scrutiny from civil liberties groups and lawmakers. Now Amazon, one of the most visible purveyors of the technology, is facing pressure from another corner as well: its own shareholders.

As part of Amazon’s annual meeting in Seattle on Wednesday, investors are voting on whether the tech giant’s aggressive push to spread the surveillance software threatens civil rights — and, as a consequence, the company’s reputation and profits.

Shareholders have introduced two proposals on facial recognition for a vote. One asks the company to prohibit sales of its facial recognition system, called Amazon Rekognition, to government agencies, unless its board concludes that the technology does not facilitate human rights violations. The other asks the company to commission an independent report examining the extent to which Rekognition may threaten civil, human and privacy rights, and the company’s finances.

“This piece of equipment that Amazon has fostered and developed and is really propagating at this point doesn’t seem to us to be in the best interest of the common good,” said Sister Pat Mahoney, a member of the Sisters of St. Joseph, a religious community in Brentwood, N.Y., that is an Amazon investor and introduced the proposed sales ban. “Facial recognition all over the place just makes everyone live in a police state.”

The proposals are nonbinding, meaning they do not require the company to take action, even if they receive a majority vote. But they add to the growing resistance to facial surveillance technology by elected officials, civil liberties groups and even some Amazon employees.

Last week, San Francisco banned the use of facial surveillance technology by the police and other city agencies. Oakland, Calif., and Somerville, Mass., near Boston, are considering similar bans. Earlier this year, state lawmakers in Massachusetts and California introduced bills that would restrict its use by government agencies. On Wednesday, the House Committee on Oversight and Reform is holding a hearing on the civil rights implications of facial surveillance.

The Amazon shareholder proposals also highlight the rise of activism among investors in the country’s top tech companies.

Last year, investors successfully pressured Apple to create stronger parental controls for iPhones, warning that the device could be too compelling for young children. In the coming weeks, shareholders of Facebook, Twitter and Alphabet will vote on issues related to election interference, hate speech, disinformation and the creation of censored services for China.

“We’re not Luddites, we’re not anti-technology,” said Michael Connor, the executive director of Open MIC, a nonprofit group that works with activist investors in the tech sector and helped draft the facial surveillance proposals with Amazon shareholders. “But we do think all these technologies have to be handled and introduced in a responsible way.”

For Amazon’s annual meeting on Wednesday, employees who are stockholders have also introduced a proposal on climate change, pushing the company to make firm commitments to reduce its carbon footprint.

But Amazon fought particularly hard to prevent the votes on facial surveillance. In a letter to the Securities and Exchange Commission in January, the company said that it was not aware of any reported misuse of Rekognition by law enforcement customers. It also argued that the technology did not present a financial risk because it was just one of the more than 165 services Amazon offered.

“The proposals raise only conjecture and speculation about possible risks that might arise” from clients misusing the technology, lawyers for Amazon wrote in the letter. The agency disagreed, ultimately requiring Amazon to allow the facial surveillance resolutions to proceed.

In a statement in response to a reporter’s questions, Amazon said it offered clear guidelines on using Rekognition for public safety — including a recommendation that law enforcement agencies have humans review any possible facial matches suggested by its system. The company added that its customers had used Rekognition for beneficial purposes, including identifying more than 3,000 victims of human trafficking.

“We have not seen law enforcement agencies use Amazon Rekognition to infringe on citizens’ civil liberties,” the Amazon statement said.

(The New York Times used Amazon Rekognition last year to help identify guests at the royal wedding of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle.)

Amazon is becoming a national magnet for mounting opposition to facial surveillance — a technology that may be used to identify and track people at a distance without their knowledge or consent.

Facial recognition uses artificial intelligence to scan a photo of an unknown person. The software then compares the facial template of the unknown person with a database of templates of known people and, if the templates are very similar, may suggest a name or match.

Proponents of the technology argue that such systems help law enforcement agencies more easily identify crime suspects and missing children. Civil liberties groups warn that the technology could easily be misused to disproportionately pursue immigrants, people of color and protesters, infringing on their rights to free speech and movement.

Other companies have long sold facial surveillance to law enforcement agencies, but Amazon has differentiated itself by, in part, playing down warnings about the technology.

Last year, Google said that it would refrain from offering facial recognition for general purposes until it had worked through the policy implications. This year, Bradford L. Smith, the president of Microsoft, said that his company had decided not to sell the surveillance technology to a police department seeking to freely use it on the general public.

Amazon, in contrast, recently pitched its facial recognition services to Immigration and Customs Enforcement, according to company emails obtained under open records law by the Project on Government Oversight, a nonprofit group based in Washington.

Institutional Shareholder Services and Glass Lewis, two prominent firms that advise many large institutional investors, each recommended this month that shareholders vote in favor of the resolution calling for an outside report on Rekognition’s risks.

In its analysis, Institutional Shareholder Services wrote that Amazon “may be lagging its peers” because it has “not developed rules for bidding on government contracts, has not formed an artificial intelligence ethics committee and has not announced partnerships with civil liberties organizations.”

Industry analysts said there was little chance that the proposal to ban Rekognition would gain traction among shareholders.

But at least a few large institutional investors — including the New York City Pension Funds, which have about $1 billion in Amazon holdings — plan to vote in favor of the proposal for an independent report on facial surveillance.

“We want Amazon’s board to oversee and disclose how Amazon is addressing the significant risks posed by the sale of facial recognition technology,” said Scott Stringer, the New York City comptroller and the investment adviser to the funds. He described the software as “a product that could lead to violations of human and civil rights around the world, especially if sold to authoritarian governments.”

Even so, that may not sway Amazon, whose largest investor prefers a wait-and-see approach to the risks of emerging technologies.

“Technologies always are two-sided. There are ways they can be misused,” Jeff Bezos, Amazon’s chief executive, said at a Wired tech conference last fall, adding: “That’s always been the case, and we will figure it out. The last thing I’d ever want to do is stop the progress of new technologies, even when they are dual use.”

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How to sync a Google Calendar with an iPhone

If you’re a Gmail user and keep your schedule in Google Calendar, one way to ensure you always have that information while on the go is to install the Google Calendar app.

But if you’d prefer to see your Google Calendar activities in the iPhone’s built-in Calendar app, that’s quite easy to do as well.

How to sync Google Calendar with your iPhone

1. Start the Settings app.

2. In the pane on the left, tap “Passwords and Accounts.”

Your Google Calendar data can come from the same Google account you add to see Gmail on your phone.
Dave Johnson/Business Insider

3. Scan the list of accounts on the right. If you see the Google account that includes your calendar information, tap it and skip down to step 6.

4. If you don’t already have the account on your iPhone, tap “Add Account.”

5. Tap “Google” and, on the sign-in page, follow the instructions to sign in with your Gmail address and password. If you have 2-Step Verification enabled for your Gmail account, you will need to visit your Google Account’s Security page, create an app password, and enter that instead of your regular Google password.

6. Once you’re logged in, you’ll be taken to a page with your email address at the top and some options. On this page, you can choose which Google services — mail, contacts, calendar, and notes — you want to sync with your iPhone. If the calendar is the only thing you want to sync, turn off the others by swiping the sliders to the left. Make sure that Calendar is turned on. If you’re setting up the account on your phone for the first time, tap “Save.”

Be sure that the Google Calendar data is turned on or else it won’t appear in your Calendar app.
Dave Johnson/Business Insider

7. Start the Calendar app.

8. At the bottom of the screen, tap “Calendars.”

9. If it’s not already selected, find the entry for the Google Calendar you just added to your iPhone and tap it. You should see a checkmark, and the calendar entries should immediately appear on the calendar.

Select your Google account in the Calendar app.
Dave Johnson/Business Insider

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Mexico unveils policy to withhold Uber drivers’ taxes

A man puts on a delivery bag with the logo of Uber Eats in Mexico City, Mexico May 20, 2019. REUTERS/Carlos Jasso

MEXICO CITY (Reuters) – Mexico’s Finance Ministry on Monday laid out plans to withhold tax from drivers for ride-hailing and food delivery firms such as Uber Technologies Inc and Rappi, part of a push to improve tax collection in Latin America’s 2nd largest economy.

Mexico’s government has vowed not to create new taxes, but is looking for other ways to increase income, arguing public revenues have been low relative to other nations in the region.

“With this new scheme, Uber will be able to calculate, withhold and pay directly to the Mexican tax authorities the amount of income tax and VAT that its drivers and delivery drivers owe every month,” Uber said in a statement.

The monthly value-added tax (VAT) withholding rate will be 8% and income tax rate will range from 3% to 9% once the measures are put it place on June 1, Uber said.

In theory, the new program will not change drivers’ employment status, a key issue for the technology company, since Mexican law allows for retention of taxes without an employment relationship.

Uber has mostly successfully beaten back attempts around the world to compel it to treat drivers as employees, arguing that its main business is a platform that brings riders and drivers together.

Other than Uber, the companies that have agreed to the new tax scheme include Cabify, Bolt, Beat, Cornershop, Rappi, Sin Delantal and Uber Eats, the Finance Ministry said.

The scheme “does not represent new or additional taxes, its objective is to simplify compliance with tax obligations,” the ministry said.

Earlier on Monday, President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador said he was planning to end a practice of debt forgiveness for large companies that he called “white collar theft” and estimated had cost the treasury $20 billion in the past 12 years.

Writing by Anthony Esposito; Editing by Frank Jack Daniel and Rosalba O’Brien

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Google ‘restricts Huawei’s use of Android’

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Google has cut phone maker Huawei off from some updates to the Android operating system, Reuters reports.

New smartphones made by the company will also lose access to Google’s app store and software such as Gmail, the news agency’s story says.

Huawei declined to comment and Google did not immediately respond to a request for comment from the BBC.

What services precisely will be severed is still being discussed at Google, said Reuters, citing an unnamed source.

Huawei can still use the version of the Android operating system available through the open source license.

‘Big implications”

On Wednesday the Trump administration added Huawei to its “entity list“, blocking the sale or transfer of American technology without a licence.

“Until there is a clear statement from Google, it is hard to speculate about the ramifications,” said Ben Wood, from the CCS Insight consultancy.

“But should the Reuters report be accurate, it would have big implications for Huawei’s consumer business.”

Several governments around the world have blocked telecoms companies from using Huawei gear in next-generation 5G mobile networks, citing security concerns.

So far the UK has held back from any formal ban.

“Huawei has been working hard on developing its own App Gallery and other software assets in a similar manner to its work on chipset solutions. There is little doubt these efforts are part of its desire to control its own destiny,” said Mr Wood.

Short-term damage for Huawei?

By Leo Kelion, BBC Technology desk editor

In the short term, this could be very damaging for Huawei in the West.

Smartphone shoppers would not want an Android phone that lacked access to Google’s Play Store, its virtual assistant or security updates, assuming these are among the services that would be pulled.

Longer term, though, this might give smartphone vendors in general a reason to seriously consider the need for a viable alternative to Google’s operating system, particularly at a time the search giant is trying to push its own Pixel brand at their expense.

As far as Huawei is concerned, it appears to have prepared for the eventuality of being cut off from American know-how.

Its smartphones are already powered by its own proprietary processors, and earlier this year its consumer devices chief told German newspaper Die Welt that “we have prepared out own operating systems – that’s our plan B”.

Even so, this move could knock its ambition to overtake Samsung and become the bestselling smartphone brand in 2020 seriously off course.

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Game of Thrones petition reaches 1M signatures ahead of finale – TechCrunch

Life is short, difficult and, most likely, ultimately meaningless. In this age of immediate fan service, it’s important to remember that you can’t always get what you want. That goes double when it comes to the final season of a beloved television series (I’m looking at you, The Wire). TV, like life, rarely has a satisfying ending.

But perhaps the internet — the cause of and solution to all of life’s problems — can fix that. Irritated Games of Thrones fans have taken to that bastion the bastion of fan annoyance (no, not that one) in a futile hope of getting a remake of the show’s eighth and final series to end thing they way they want.

As the petition has cruised past one million signatures, its creators have penned a prediction and spoiler note to let signers know where things stand. Tempering expectations for the possibility of a reshoot, it notes that the state of the world demands escapism via sci-fi and fantasy like GoT and Star Wars.

“I didn’t make this petition to be an entitled, whiny fan,” the petition’s creator writes. “I made it because I was immensely disappointed and needed to vent. Do I have a solution? I’ve got plenty of ideas, but no, I’m not a Hollywood writer. But you don’t need to be a mechanic to know your car is broken.”

Who knows, maybe tonight’s final episode will make everything right. Perhaps it will be so good that the world’s corporations and governments will join forces to end war, obliterate poverty and create a diet soda that doesn’t taste like a liquified pencil eraser. Or maybe we’ll all go back to work to work on Monday knowing that it, like all of us could have been better. And maybe, just maybe true change starts with us, beginning with canceling that HBO account.

Or maybe not. Barry is still pretty great.

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Google Docs cheat sheet | Computerworld

Google Docs is a powerful word processor that you use through your web browser. It’s integrated with Google Drive to store your documents in the cloud. Anyone with a Google account can use it for free, and it’s also available as part of G Suite — Google’s subscription-based collection of online office apps for business and enterprise customers that includes Google Sheets, Slides, Gmail, Keep, and more. In addition to the web interface, there are Docs mobile apps for Android and iOS.

This quick guide will get you started with Google Docs and up to speed on how its features work, such as sharing your documents and collaborating on them with others.

Share this story: G Suite administrators, we hope you’ll pass this guide on to your users to help them get up to speed with Google Docs.

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Tech Jobs Lead to the Middle Class. Just Not for the Masses.

Year Up “embodies strong forms of what we know makes sense and seems to work,” said David Fein, principal investigator for Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education, a multiyear evaluation of training and education programs. “The impact is real for those who are chosen.”

When Will L. Davis of Snellville, Ga., learned of Year Up, he had a retail job paying just above the minimum wage. He was looking for more. “This is my chance,” he recalled saying to himself.

After the Year Up coursework, he landed an internship at the local office of New York Life, where he was hired full time in late 2017. Today, Mr. Davis, 27, is a cybersecurity specialist working on an incident response team at the company. He earns above $40,000, more than twice his salary in retail.

Partnerships with community colleges, begun as an experiment in 2012, have become the driver of growth for Year Up. About 3,000 of its 4,700 students are in programs conducted with community colleges. Year Up and the colleges share space, people, training courses and best practices. By combining resources, the program can reduce its cost of $28,000 a student by 30 percent, Mr. Chertavian said.

The model at Year Up and the other nonprofit work-force ventures hinges on close ties with employers. Their programs involve work-based learning at companies to link training with employer needs, and thus hiring. They typically teach both technical and “soft skills” like teamwork, confidence while speaking in public and household budgeting — a comprehensive formula that requires more time and money.

It also requires a change in corporate hiring. Four-year college degrees remain a requirement at many companies. In the last few years, some have dropped that hurdle for certain occupations, responding to a tight job market, calls for diversity and the success of programs like Year Up.

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